ADAPTATION

INTRODUCTION

—Cellular adaptation refers to changes(structure, function, or behavior ) made by a cell in response to adverse environmental changes which improves its chance of survival in a specific environment.

—The adaptation may be physiological (normal) or pathological (abnormal).

—Adaptations develop as the result of genetic variations that are capable of being passed from one generation to the next.

Variations that prove advantageous will tend to spread throughout the population.

Types of cellular adaptations

There are five types of adaptation –

—Atrophy – Atrophy is a decrease in cell size.

—Hypertrophy – Hypertrophy is an increase in cell size.

—Hyperplasia – Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells.

—Dysplasia – Dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in cellular shape, size, and/or organization.

—Metaplasia – Metaplasia occurs when a differentiated cell of a certain type is replaced by another cell type, which may be less differentiated.

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