SIGNIFICANT FIGURES & RULES

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES

The significant figures of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.

There are certain rules to find out the significant figures of a given number-

Rules 1 – All non-zero digits are significant.

Example –

  1. 91 – In 91, there are two significant figures 9 & 1.
  2. 123.45 – Here, there are five significant figures 1,2,3,4 & 5.

Rule 2 – Zeros between non-zero digits are significant.

Example- 101.1203 – As per the rule, there are seven significant figures in 101.1203, these are 1,0,1,,1,2,0 & 3.

Rule 3 – Leading zeros are never significant.

Example – 0.00052 – There are only two significant figures 5 & 2.

Rule 4 – In a number with a decimal point, trailing zero those to the right of the last non-zero digit are significant.

Example – 12.2300 – Here, there are six significant figures 1,2,2,3,0,& 0.

Rule 5 – In a number without a decimal point, trailing zeros may or may not be significant.

Example  – 1300 – In 1300, there are four significant figures 1,3,0 & 0.

 

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS, QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS, METHODS OF ANALYSIS

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS

Pharma means drug and analysis means determination or estimation. So pharmaceutical analysis means determination or estimation of drug in a simple way. But in the language of science, pharmaceutical analysis is defined as it is the branch of science which deals with the study of separation, identification and quantification of drugs (analyte). The person who is involved in analysis, is known as analyst.

Example – i. A mixture when analyzed gives compounds and when a compound is analyzed gives elements. Element is the basic unit of any substance.

  1. separation of protein into its individual components (amino acids), its identification and then quantification.

QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

Qualitative Analysis – The word qualitative is made from quality. In qualitative analysis tests are performed on the sample to know its composition i.e. constituents present in the sample. Simply we can say qualitative analysis is the identification of the analyte.

Example – Suppose a sample (Z) is to be analyzed.

When Z is analyzed, the analyst found 5 constituents A, B, C, D & E in that sample. So determination of constituents only not its amount is called qualitative analysis.

Quantitative analysis – the word quantitative is made from quantity. In quantitative analysis tests are performed on the sample to know its composition along with its quantity/amount  i.e. in how much quantity, constituents are present in the sample. Simply we can say the quantitative analysis is determination of amount or concentration of analyte.

Methods of Analysis

  1. Chemical method – It is also called wet analysis, which is based on titrations i.e. reactions between titrant and titrand. Lot of titrations are their which have their own working principles e.g. acid ase titration, redox titration, precipitation titration, complexometric titration etc.
  2. Instrumental method – it includes spectroscopic and chromatographic methodsI. i. Spectroscopic method – in this method specific instruments are employed which works on the principle of absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiations g. Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). ii. Chromatographic method – Here we use affinity or partition coefficient differences between drugs e.g. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Gas chromatography (GC).

ACCURACY, PRECISION & ERRORS -STATISTICAL TOOLS OF MEASUREMENT

STATISTICS INVOLVED IN PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS

Statistics is of great importance in calculating the result from the analytical data obtained. These are accuracy, precision, errors and significant figures. To understand accuracy, precision and error some terms should be very clear in mind i.e. observed value & standard value.

Observed value – These are the values which an analyst obtains after analysis of sample e.g. an analyst after analysis of a sample says that the sample is 80% pure. This 80% is observed value.

Standard value – Sometimes it is also called as true value. This is the value which the sample claims e.g. a tablet sample claims paracetamol 100 mg. This 100 mg is standard value.

Accuracy, Precision & Errors

These can be easily explained by an example. Two analysts (Analyst 1 & analyst 2) are analyzing a sample five times using same method and instruments (sample claims it is 100% pure i.e. standard value is 100%). The results  of the of the tests performed by the two analysts are given in the table below-

TEST NUMBER ANALYST 1 ANALYST 2
1 99.10 % 98.95 %
2 99.30 % 98.91 %
3 99.80 % 98.96 %
4 99.50 % 98.92 %
5 100.00 % 98.93 %

Now, if we calculate the average/mean value of the results obtained by analyst 1, we get

99.10 + 99.30 + 99.80 + 99.50 + 100.00

Mean = —————————————————————— = 497.7 / 5 = 99.54 %

5

Error = 100 – 99.54 = 0.46 %

Now, if we calculate the average/mean value of the results obtained by analyst 2, we get

98.95 + 98.91 + 98.96 + 98.92 + 98.93

Mean = —————————————————————— = 494.67 / 5 = 98.934 %

5

Error = 100 – 98.934 = 1.066 %

Accuracy – Accuracy means how near the observed value is to the standard value.

Precision – Precision means nearness between several measurements of the same quantity.

If we compare the results of the two analysts, error of analyst 1 is 0.46% and of analyst 2 is 1.066%, following things can be concluded-

  1. Results of analyst 1 is more accurate than the results of analyst 2 because comparably, error of analyst 1 (0.46%)is much less than the error of analyst 2 (1.066%)
  2. Results of analyst 2 is much more précised than the results of analyst 1 because there is very less difference in each other.

Now we will discuss about error, its types and methods of minimizing error.

ERROR

Error – The difference between the observed value and the standard value. Larger the difference, more be the error. If two analysts performs a analysis using the same instrument and for measurement, its not essential that both will get the same results. There may be difference in their measurements. This difference is called as error.

Types of error

Broadly we can divide error into three types namely personal error, systematic error and random error.

  1. Personal error – it arises due to the use of faulty procedure. For example
  2. two persons if taking reading of thermometer, there readings may differ.
  3. two persons if pipetting some chemicals, quantity may differ because some use lower meniscus and some upper meniscus while pipetting.
  • during titration, if the end point is pink color, a person can do mistake because of the confusion in colors like light pink or dark pink.
  1. Systematic error or determinate error – it arises due to instrumental fault i.e. use of uncalibrated (calibration means to check the machine whether it working properly or not, if not it will be corrected) instruments.

Example – if a person is using a digital weighing machine to weigh a sample and the machine is giving weight 50 mg. he takes the weight of the sample as 50 mg. This reading may be wrong because may e the machine is uncalibrated, may be the correct result is 48 mg or 52 mg. This type of error comes under systematic error.

  1. Random error or indeterminate error – These errors are beyond our control and arises due to sudden change in environmental conditions like
  2. Sudden change in temperature, humidity
  3. Voltage fluctuation

Sources of error

Human error and equipment error are the sources of error.

  1. Human error – Examples of human error are-
  2. Incorrect measurement
  3. Use of contaminating glasswares e.g. a person uses a pipette to pipette 5 ml nitric acid and without washing he uses it for pipetting hydrochloric acid. Here the hydrochloric acid gets contaminated.
  • Dirty working place, glasswares, instruments
  1. Equipment error – taking measurement without checking, its giving correct reading or not.

Methods for minimizing errors –     

  1. Correct measurements
  2. Working place and instruments should be clean
  3. Glasswares should be washed, cleaned and dried.
  4. Calibrated instruments should be always used
  5. Use of correct procedure
  6. Running a blank determination
  7. Use of two methods and results are compared

PRACTICAL-PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING-I-FACTORS AFFECTING RATE OF EVAPORATION

Object – To see the effect of following factors on rate of evaporation –

  1. Concentration
  2. Surface area
  3. Thickness/Viscosity

Reference – Subrahmanyam C.V.S. etal, Laboratory manual of Pharmaceutical engineering – unit operations, Vallabh publications, Delhi, II edition, 2011, 116-120.

Materials required –

Chemicals – Glycerine, sodium chloride

Glasswares and apparatus – Water bath, beaker, graph paper, measuring cylinder

Theory – Change of water to water vapor or liquid to vapor phase is called evaporation. Rate of evaporation is effected by many factors like surface area, concentration and thickness/viscosity. As surface area increases, the rate of evaporation increases because number of molecules are more for getting the heat. As concentration increases, the rate of evaporation decreases and as viscosity increases, the rate of evaporation decreases.  

Procedure –

  1. Effect of concentration –
  2. Three beakers were taken of different capacity.
  3. 25 ml water was taken in each beaker.
  4. All beakers were kept over boiling water bath for 30 minutes.
  5. After 30 minutes, the volume of water left was measured.
  6. Quantity of water evaporated was then calculated.
  7. Then rate of evaporation was calculated.
  8. Surface area of each beaker was calculated.
  9. A graph was plotted between rate of evaporation and surface area.

Observation –

S.NO. BEAKER RADIUS VOLUME OF WATER TAKEN VOLUME OF WATER LEFT AFTER HEATING QUANTITY OF WATER EVAPORATED
1 50 ml 2.0 cm 25 ml
2 150 ml 2.75 cm 25 ml
3 250 ml 3.25 cm 25 ml
4 500 ml 4 cm 25 ml

 

Calculation –

Rate of evaporation = Quantity of water evaporated / Time of heating in minutes.

Let for 50 ml beaker, amount of water evaporated = 1 ml, then rate of evaporation = 1/30 ml/min

Surface area of beaker = πr2

  1. If radius is 2 cm for 50 ml beaker, then area = 3.14 x 2 x 2 = 12.56 sq.cm.
  2. If radius is 2.75 cm for 150 ml beaker, then area = 3.14 x 2.75 x 2.75 = 23.74 sq.cm.
  3. If radius is 3.25 cm for 250 ml beaker, then area = 3.14 x 3.25 x 3.25 = 33.16 sq.cm.
  4. If radius is 4 cm for 500 ml beaker, then area = 3.14 x 4 x 4 = 50.24 sq.cm.

 

  1. Effect of Thickness/Viscosity-
  2. In same capacity beakers, solutions of different ratios of glycerine and water were prepared as given below
S.NO. GLYCERINE WATER CONCENTRATION
1 5 45 10%
2 10 40 20%
3 15 35 30%
4 20 30 40%
  1. The above solutions were kept on boiling water bath for 30 minutes.
  2. After 30 minutes, volume of water left in all the beakers were measured.
  3. Quantity of water evaporated was then calculated.
  4. Then rate of evaporation was calculated.
  5. A graph was plotted between rate of evaporation and viscosity.

Observation –

S.NO. TYPE OF SOLUTION VOLUME OF SOLUTION VOLUME OF WATER LEFT AFTER HEATING QUANTITY OF WATER EVAPORATED
1 10% 50 ml
2 20% 50 ml
3 30% 50 ml
4 40% 50 ml

Calculation –

Rate of evaporation = Quantity of water evaporated / Time of heating in minutes.

  1. Effect of concentration –
  2. In same capacity beakers, sodium chloride solution of different concentrations were prepared as given below
S.NO. SODIUM CHLORIDE WATER CONCENTRATION
1 5 100 5%
2 10 100 10%
3 15 100 15%
4 20 100 20%
  1. The above solutions were kept on boiling water bath for 30 minutes.
  2. After 30 minutes, volume of water left in all the beakers were measured.
  3. Quantity of water evaporated was then calculated.
  4. Then rate of evaporation was calculated.
  5. A graph was plotted between rate of evaporation and concentration.

Observation –

S.NO. TYPE OF SOLUTION VOLUME OF SOLUTION VOLUME OF WATER LEFT AFTER HEATING QUANTITY OF WATER EVAPORATED
1 5% 100 ml
2 10% 100 ml
3 15% 100 ml
4 20% 100 ml

Calculation –

Rate of evaporation = Quantity of water evaporated / Time of heating in minutes.

Result – After performing the experiment, graphs were plotted. From the obtained graph, it was concluded that-

  1. As surface area increases, rate of evaporation increases.
  2. As viscosity increases, rate of evaporation decreases.
  • As concentration increases, rate of evaporation decreases.

PRACTICAL-HAP-I-DETERMINATION OF HAEMOGLOBIN

Object – To determine the haemoglobin content of your own blood sample.

Reference – Deshmukh P., Practicals in anatomy physiology and health education – I, Shree sai prakashan, Meerut, I edition, 2009, 27-30.

Materials required –

Chemicals – N/10 Hydrochloric acid

Glasswares & Apparatus – Haemometer, measuring cylinder, beaker, disposable needle, antiseptic liquid, cotton

Theory/Principle –

When haemoglobin reacts with N/10 hydrochloric acid, acid hematin is formed which gives dark brown color, which is further diluted with water till its color matches with the color provided in the sahli’s match box. Haemoglobin is part of RBC of blood, the red color of RBC is due to of haemoglobin. The main function of haemoglobin is transport of oxygen to all parts of the body. The deficiency of haemoglobin is called anaemia. Normal values of haemoglobin in males and females are 14-18 gm% and 12-16 gm% respectively.

Procedure –

  1. First of all, the sahli’s tube was filled with N/10 hydrochloric acid upto 2 mark.
  2. Finger tip was cleaned with cotton which is soaked with antiseptic liquid.
  3. Now the finger tip was pricked with disposable needle.
  4. Blood started coming out of the finger. 20 µl blood was collected in the sahli’s pipette.
  5. The collected blood was then transferred to sahli’s tube immediately which already contains N/10 hydrochloric acid.
  6. It was shaked well for proper mixing for atleast 5 minutes.
  7. Now the tube was inserted in sahli’s match box and water was added drop by drop to the tube till the colour of the contents of the tube matches with the colour provided in the sahli’s match box.
  8. After matching the color, adding water to tube was stopped and reading was taken.

Result – The haemoglobin content of my own blood sample was …………………. gm%.

Precautions –

  1. Precautions were taken so that no air bubble was enter to the pipette while taking 20 µl blood.
  2. Transferring of blood from pipette to the tube was done immediately because clotting of blood blocks the pipette and its very difficult to clean.

PRACTICAL PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF 1 N SODIUM HYDROXIDE

Object – Preparation & standardization of Sodium hydroxide (1 N solution)

Reference – 1. Siddiqui A.A. & Ali M., Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, CBS publishers and distributors, New Delhi, I edition, 1997, 6-7

  1. Rao G.D., Practical pharmaceutical analysis, Birla publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, II edition, 2007-08, 25-26

Glasswares & apparatus required – digital balance, volumetric flask, pipette, conical flask, burette, burette stand

Chemicals required – sodium hydroxide pellets, distill water, phenolphthalein solution, hydrochloric acid, methyl orange solution.

Theory – A neutralization reaction involves the titration of the free bases with a standard acid (acidimetry), and the titration of free acid with a base (alkalimetry). These reactions include the combination of hydrogen and hydroxide ion to form water. The point at which this is reached is the equivalence point or theoretical end point. If both the acid and base are strong electrolytes, the resultant solution will be neutral and have a pH of 7. If either the acid or the base is a weak electrolyte, the salt will be hydrolyzed to some extent and the solution at the equivalence point will be either slightly alkaline or slightly acid.

The acid base indicators possess different colors according to the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution and the position of the color change interval in the pH scale varies widely with different indicators.

In aqueous solution an acid is dissociated into hydrogen ion and anion-

HCl → H+ + Cl

The hydrogen ion combines with water to give hydronium ion.

An alkali on dissociation in water gives hydroxyl ions,

NaOH ↔ Na+ + OH

The neutralization reaction is the reaction between an acid and a base to give a salt.

HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O

Procedure –

Preparation of 1 N Sodium Hydroxide-

Accurately weighed 40 gm sodium hydroxide pellets was taken in a 1000 ml volumetric flask and then 50 ml water was added, shaked and then the volume was made upto 1000 ml with water.

Standardization –

  1. 20 ml of 1 N Sodium hydroxide was pipette and taken in a conical flask.
  2. Then 2 drops of phenolphthalein was added to it.
  3. Now it was titrated with 1 N Hydrochloric acid until the color became colorless.

Observation – Suppose Burette reading = 16 ml

Calculation –                                  N1V1 = N2V2

Where N1 = Normality of unknown, V1 = Volume of unknown = 20 ml, N2 = Normality of known (1 N HCl) = 1, V2 = Volume of known (1 N HCl)= 16 ml

                                           N1 = N2V2 / V1 = 1 X 16 / 20 = 0.8 N

Result – Sodium hydroxide (1 N solution) was prepared and standardized. The normality was found to be 0.8 N.

PRACTICAL PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS – DETERMINATION OF SURFACE TENSION

Object – To determine the surface tension of given liquid by –

  1. Drop number method
  2. Drop count method

Reference – Bahl B.S. etal, Essentials of Physical chemistry, S.Chand & Company Limited, New Delhi,  24th  edition, 1997, 348-352

Materials required –

Chemicals – Benzene or Toluene or ethyl alcohol or methyl alcohol

Glasswares & Apparatus – Measuring cylinder, Weighing balance, beaker, stalagmometer, weighing bottle

Theory – Surface tension arises on the surface of the liquid due to the intermolecular forces among the molecules of liquid. Molecules in the interior of the liquid is pulled in all directions equally but the molecules in the surface of the liquid is pulled in three direction only i.e. sidewards and downwards. This downward force pulls the molecules of the liquid to come inside which is called surface tension and this is the reason why a drop of water takes spherical shape. Hence, on this concept surface tension is defined as the force in dynes acting on the surface of liquid at right angles to a line 1 centimeter in length. In CGS system the unit of surface tension is dyne/cm and in SI system the unit of surface tension is Newton/meter.  Stalagmometer is the apparatus which is used for the determination of surface tension.

Surface tension of some liquids at 20C are –

LIQUIDS SURFACE TENSION
Water 72.75
Ethyl alcohol 22.27
Methyl alcohol 22.6
Acetone 23.7
Toluene 28.43
Benzene 28.9

 

Procedure –

  1. Drop number method

For sample liquid (1)

 

  1. A cleaned and dried stalagmometer was taken and it was filled with the sample liquid say toluene or benzene.
  2. 20 drops of the sample liquid from the stalagmometer was taken in weighing bottle.
  • Now the weighing bottle was weighed.
  1. From the obtained weight of 20 drops of sample liquid , weight of one drop of sample liquid (m1) was calculated.

For reference liquid (2)

  1. A cleaned and dried stalagmometer was taken and it was filled with the sample liquid say toluene or benzene.
  2. 20 drops of the sample liquid from the stalagmometer was taken in weighing bottle.
  • Now the weighing bottle was weighed.
  1. From the obtained weight of 20 drops of sample liquid , weight of one drop of sample liquid (m2) was calculated.

Observation table  for sample liquid –

Weight of empty weighing bottle (a) Weight of weighing bottle with the 20 drops of sample liquid (b) Weight of 20 drops of sample liquid (c)= b-a Weight of one drop of sample liquid (m1)= c/20
 

 

 

Observation table  for reference liquid –

Weight of empty weighing bottle (a) Weight of weighing bottle with the 20 drops of reference liquid (b) Weight of 20 drops of reference liquid (c)= b-a Weight of one drop of reference liquid (m2) = c/20
 

 

 

 

Formula used to calculate surface tension-

                                           γ1                                              m1

                                                       ———————-              =        ———————–         OR      γ1   = m1 γ2  / m2

                                           γ2                                              m2         

       where           γ= surface tension of sample liquid, γ= surface tension of reference liquid, m= weight of one drop of sample liquid and m= weight of one drop of reference liquid     

  1. Drop Count Method –

Procedure –

  1. First of all, a cleaned and dried stalagmometer was taken and it was filled with the sample liquid.
  2. Now the number of drops of sample liquid were counted from mark A to B.
  3. The same above steps were repeated for the reference liquid (water).
  4. Density of the sample liquid was determined by using the weighing bottle.

Observation table  for density of sample liquid –

Weight of empty weighing bottle (a) Weight of weighing bottle with sample liquid (b) Weight of sample liquid (M)= b-a Volume of sample liquid (V)
 

 

 

Observation table –

No. of drops of sample liquid (n1)  

 

 

No. of drops of reference liquid (n2)

 

 

Calculation –

Density (d1) = Mass / Volume = M / V =…………………..g/ml

Surface tension of sample liquid (γ1) is calculated by using the formula –

γ1  / γ2 = n2d1 / n1d2

Where γ1 = Surface tension of sample liquid, γ2 = Surface tension of reference liquid (water = 72.75 dyne / cm), n1 = Number of drops of sample liquid, n2 = Number of drops of reference liquid, d1 = Density of sample liquid, d2 = Density of reference liquid (water = 1.0 g/ml)

Result – The surface tension of given sample liquid was carried out by drop weight method and drop count method and found ……………………. dyne /cm and ………………… ..dyne /cm respectively.

PRACTICAL PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY – LIMIT TEST FOR CHLORIDES

Object – To perform the limit test for Chlorides.

Reference – Chatwal G.R., Pharmaceutical Chemistry-Inorganic, Volume I, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, II Edition, 1996, 45-46

Materials required –

Chemicals – Nitric acid, Silver nitrate solution, Sodium Chloride, Distill water

Glasswares & Apparatus – Nessler cylinder, Measuring cylinder, Pipette, Glass rod, Spatula, Weighing balance

Theory – Limit tests are quantitative or semi quantitative tests designed to identify and control small quantities of impurity which are likely to be present in the substance. The limit tests for chlorides is based on the reaction between silver nitrate and soluble chlorides to obtain silver chloride which is insoluble in dilute nitric acid. The silver chloride produced in the presence of dilute nitric acid makes the test solution turbid, the extent of turbidity depends on the amount of chloride present in the substance is compared with the standard opalescence produced by addition of silver nitrate to a standard solution having a known amount of chloride and the same volume of dilute nitric acid as used in the test solution. If the turbidity from the sample is less than the standard turbidity, the sample will pass the limit test and vice versa.

Reactions involved in the test –

  1. Soluble chlorides in substance + silver nitrate in presence of dilute nitric acid gives silver chloride and nitrate ions
  2. Sodium chloride + silver nitrate (in presence of dilute nitric acid) gives silver chloride and sodium nitrate

Procedure –

Test solution –

  1. First of all, cleaned and dried Nessler cylinder was taken.
  2. In the Nessler cylinder, 1 gram of sample was taken.
  3. Then, 10 ml of water and 1 ml of nitric acid was added to it.
  4. Now, the volume was made upto 50 ml with water.
  5. Then, 1 ml of silver nitrate solution was added.
  6. It was stirred well.
  7. Finally it was kept aside for 5 minutes and then turbidity or opalescence was observed.

Standard solution –

  1. First of all, cleaned and dried Nessler cylinder was taken.
  2. In the Nessler cylinder, 1 ml of 0.058455% w/v solution of sodium chloride was taken.
  3. Then, 1 ml of nitric acid was added to it.
  4. Now, the volume was made upto 50 ml with water.
  5. Then, 1 ml of silver nitrate solution was added.
  6. It was stirred well.
  7. Finally it was kept aside for 5 minutes and then turbidity or opalescence was observed.

Inference –

  1. Turbidity of test solution > turbidity of standard solution – test failed
  2. Turbidity of test solution < turbidity of standard solution – test passed
  3. Turbidity of test solution = turbidity of standard solution – test passed

Result – On comparing the turbidity / Opalescence of test solution and standard solution, it was found that the turbidity of test solution is…………………………….. (more than/ less tan / equal to) the standard solution. Hence the sample ……………………………..(passed / failed) the limit test for chlorides.

DEFINITION AND BASIC TERMS USED IN PHARMACOLOGY

DEFINITION AND BASIC TERMS USED IN PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacy – The science of preparing, standardizing, compounding and dispensing of drugs.

Drug – The term drug is derived from the French word ‘Drogue’ which means ‘a dry herb’. According to WHO, a drug is any substance or product that is used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient. In terms of medicine, drug means a chemical which is used in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Pharmacology – Simply speaking pharmacology is the science of drugs i.e. study of interactions between chemical substances and biological systems. The term pharmacology is derived from the two Greek words ‘Pharmakon’ which means drug and ‘logos’ which means to study. So, pharmacology is the study of drugs i.e. the properties and effects of drugs.

Pharmacokinetics – Kinetics is derived from Greek word kinesis which means movement. So, pharmacokinetics deals with the study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. In simple words, what the body does to the drug.

Pharmacodynamics – Dynamics is a Greek word which means force. So, pharmacodynamics deals with the study of mechanism of action, response, duration of action of drugs. In simple words, what the drug does to the body.

Chemotherapy – It deals with the drugs capable of inhibiting or destroying invading microbes, parasites or cancer cells while having minimal effect on healthy living tissues.

 

 

 

Terms frequently used in Pathophysiology

BASIC TERMINOLOGIES

Absorption – Absorption is defined as process of movement of unchanged drug from the site of administration to systemic circulation.

Affinity – The ability to combine with the receptor.

Agonist – A n agent capable of interacting with the receptor which stimulates it and produces a response.

Akinesia – Akenesia is loss of normal motor function, resulting in impaired muscle movement.

Allergic rhinitis – Allergic rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal passages, usually associated with watery nasal discharge and itching of the nose and eyes.

Alzheimer’s disease – Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder which gradually destroys the ability to reason, remember, imagine and learn. It is different from the mild forgetness normally observed in older people.

Amyloidosis – Amyloidosis referes to the variety of conditions in which amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organs and/or tissues.

Analgesia – The ability to feel pain while still conscious.

Angina pectoris – Anginas pectoris is the result of myocardial ischemia caused by an imbalance between myocardial blood supply and oxygen demand.

Ankylosing spondylitis – Previously it was known by the name Bechterew’s disease or Bech terew syndrome or arie strumpell disease, now it is called as Ankylosing spondylitis. It is a form of spondyloarthritis, chronic, imflammatory arthritis and autoimmune disease. It mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroilium in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine.

Antagonism – Antagonism occurs when one drug opposes the action of the other on the same physiological system, thus diminishing or completely abolishng the effect of the other.

Antagonist – It is an agent which binds to the receptor but is unable to stimulate it. It prevents the agonist action on the receptor by making the receptor unavailable. It is also called blocker of receptors and has structural similarilty to the agonist by which it is identified by the receptor.

Anxiety – It refers to fear, headache and pressure.

Apnoea – Apnoea is the term for suspension of external breathing.

Arthritis – Derived from greek words arthro meaning joint and itis meaning inflammation. Arthritis is a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body.

Asthma – Asthma is a predisposition to chronic inflammation of the lungs in which the airways (bronchi) are reversibly narrowed.

Ataxias – Ataxias is a neurological sign and symptom consisting of gross lack of coordination of muscle movements.

Benign fasciculation syndrome – Benign fasciculation syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by fasciculation (twitching) of various voluntary muscles in the body.

Bioavailability – The term bioavailability is defined as the rate and extent (amount) of basorption of unchanged drug from its dosage form.

Bioassay – Biological standardization or bioassay of drugs is defined as the assessment of the activity of a preparation by measuring its effect  on living animals and tissues.

Bradycardia – A slow heart rate, usually defined as less than 60 beats/minute.

Bronchitis – Bronchitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lungs.

Bronchoscopy – Bronchoscopy is the technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Bursitis – Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of the synovial fluid in the body.

Cardiac arrhythmias – These conditions make the heart pump lass effectively, so that not enough blood reaches the brain and other vital organs.

Cerebral hemorrhage – A cerebral hemorrhage (or intracerebral hemorrhage, ICH), is a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage that occurs within the brain tissue itself.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of two commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed.

Clearance – Clearance is defined as the hypothetical volume of body fluids containing drug from which the drug is removed or cleared completely in a specific peroid of time. It is expressed in ml/min and is a constant for any given plasma drug concentration.

Congestive heart failure – Congestive heart failure (CHF) or heart failure is a condition in which the heart can’t pump enough blood to the body’s other organs.

Constipation – Constipation, costiveness or irregularity is a condition of the digestive system in which a person or animal experiences hard faeces that are difficult to expel.

Cycloplegia – Cycloplegia is paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye, resulting in a loss of accomodation.

Diarrhea – Diarrhea is a condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day.

Dizziness – Dizziness refers to an impairment in spatial perception and stability. It is considered imprecise. It can be used to mean vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium or for a non-specific feeling such as giddiness or foolishness.

Drowsiness – Drowsiness refers to feeling abnormally sleepy during the day. People who are drowsy may fall asleep in in appropriate situations or at inappropriate times.

Dyspepsia – Dyspepsia is also known as upset stomach or indigestion, meaning hard or difficult digestion, is a medical condition characterized by chronic or recurrent pain in the upper abdomen, upper abdominal fullness and feeling full earlier than expected when eating.

Dysuria – Painful or difficult urination. This includes burning sensation.

Edema – Edema means swelling caused by fluid in your body’s tissues.

Efficacy or intrinsic activity – The ability to produce a response.

Emphysema – Emphysema is a long term, progressive disease of the lung that primarily causes shortness of breath.

Esophagoscopy – Examination of the esophagus using a thin, lighted instrument.

Euphoria – Euphoria is medically recognized as a mental/emotional state defined as a sense of great (usually exaggerated) elation and wellbeing.

Excretion – Excretion is defined as the process whereby the drugs and/or their metabolites are irrversibly transferred from the internal or external environment.

Fibrositis – It is inflammatory hyperplasia of white fibrous connective tissue, especially surrounding the muscles and causing pain and stiffness.

Flushing – Skin blushing or flushing is a sudden reddening of the face, neck or upper chest.

Glaucoma – Glaucoma is a disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision.

Glomerular filtration – Glomerular filtration is a non-selective, unidirectional process whereby most compounds, ionized are filtered except those that are bound to plasma proteins or blood cells and thus behave as macromolecules.

Gout – Gout is one of the most painful forms of arthritis. It occurs when too much uric acid builds up in the body.

Half life – Half life describes the time necessary for the plasma concentration of drug (reflecting the amount of drug in the body) to decline to half of its existing value.

Hallucinations – Hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a concious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial and located in external objective space.

Hyperthyroidism – Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which an overactive thyroid gland is producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones that circulate in the blood.

Hypothyroidism – Hypothyroidism is the disease state in humans and in vertebrates caused by insufficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

Hypersensitivity reactions – Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by normal immune system.

Hypertension – Hypertension is increase in blood preesure above normal i.e. 120/80 mmHg.

Hypotension – Hypotension is decrease in blood preesure below normal i.e. 120/80 mmHg.

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy – Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a disease of the myocardium (the muscles of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is hypertrophied (thickened) without any obvoius cause.

Hyperuricemia – Hyperuricemia is a level of uric acid in the blood that is abnormally high.

Hypnosis – It is a process of calm down and inducing sleep.

Insomnia – Insomnia is a symptomwhich can accompany several sleep, medical and psychiatric disorders, characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep despite the opportunity.

Lacrimation – The production, secretion and shedding of tears.

Laryngoscopy – Laryngoscopy is an examination a doctor users to look at the back of the throat, including the voice box (larynx) and vocal cords.

Metabolism – Metabolism of drugs is defined as the conversion from one chemical form to another. The term is used synonymously with biotransformation.

Migraine – Migraine is a type of severe or sometimes even disabling headache.

Miosis – Miosis is constriction of the pupil of the eye.

Motion sickness – Motion sickness or kinetosis also known as travel sickness, is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system’s sense of movement.

Mydriasis – Mydriasis is an excessive dilation of the pupil due to disease, trauma or the use of drugs.

Myocardial infraction – Myocardial infraction or acute myocardial infraction commonly known as heart attack, is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing some heart cells to die.

Myasthenia gravis – Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body.

Myositis – Myositis is inflammation of skeletal uscles, which are also called the voluntary muscles.

Nausea and vomiting – Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of an underlying disease and not a specific illness. Nausea is the sensation that the stomach wants to empty itself, while vomiting (emesis) or throwing up, is the act of forcible emptying of the stomach.

Nephropathy – Nephropathy refers to damage to or disease of the kidney. An older term for this is nephrosis.

Parkinson’s disease – Parkinson’s dosease is an age related deterioration of certain nerve systems which affects our movement, balance and muscle control.

Pharmacodynamics – Pharmacodynamics concerns te actions, interactions and the mechanism of action of drugs.

Pharmacokinetics – Pharmacokinetics is defined as the study of time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and their relationship with its therapeutic and tixic effects of the drugs.

Pheochromocytoma – A pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumour of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), which is due to excess secretions of catecholamines.

Photophobia – Photophobia is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light.

Placebo – In medical research, placebos depend on use of controlled and measured deception. Common placebos are inert tablets, sham surgery and other procedures based on false information. In one comon placebo procedure, a patient is given an inert pill, yold that it may improve his/her condition, but not told that it is inert. Such an intervention may cause the patient to believe the treatment will change his/her condition, and this belief may produce a subjective perception of a therapeutic effect, causing the patient to feel their condition has improved. This phenomenon is called the placebo effect.

Prodrug – A prodrug is a pharmacological substance (drug), that is administered in an inactive (or significantly less active) form. An inactive precursor of a drug, converted into its active form in the body by normal metabolism.

Prophylaxis – A measure taken for the prevention of a disease or condition.

Pruritis – Pruritis pamphlet pruritis is an itch or a sensation that makes a person want to scratch. Pruritis can cause discomfort and be frustrating.

Pulmonary embolism – Pulmonary embolism is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

Rashes – A rash is a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance or texture.

Receptors – The component of the cell or organism which interacts with the drug and initiates a chain of responses leading to the observed effects of the drug .

Renal clearance – It can be defined as the volume of blood or plasma which is completely cleared of the unchanged drug by the kidney per unit time.

Reye’s syndrome – Reye’s syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs especially the brain and the liver as well as causing hypoglycemia.

Sialogogue – A sialogogue is a drug that increases the flow of saliva. Sialogogues can be used in the treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth).

Shock – Shock is a serious, life-threatening medical condition characterized by a decrease in tissue perfusion to a point at which it is inadequate to meet cellular metabolic needs.

Synergism – When the therapeutic effects of the two drug combination are greater than the individual drug is known as synergism.

Steatorrhea – Steatorrhea is the presence of excess fat in faeces. Stool may also float due to excess lipid, have an oily appearance and oroduce foul smell.

Tachycardia – A rapid heart rate, usually defined as greater than 100 beats per minute.

Thyrotoxicosis – Thyrotoxicosis or hyperthyroidism is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine or both.

Tinnitus – Tinnitus is a ringing, swishing or other type of noise that seems to originate in the ear or head.

Tremor – A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle movement involving oscillations of one or more body parts.

Urticaria – Urticaria are a kind of skin rash notable for dark red, raised, itchy bumps.

Vasoconstriction – Narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contracting of the muscular wall of the vessels.

Vasodilation – Widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of the muscular wall of the vessels.

Xerostomia – Xerostomia is the medical term from the subjective complaint of dry mouth due to a lack of saliva.